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1月热词翻译汇总 手机同时装易通行和一卡通

2019年1月,2018年度国家最高科学技术奖出炉;国务院批复同意《河北雄安新区总体规划(2018—2035年)》;13部门联合开展整治“保健”市场乱象百日行动;嫦娥四号成功着陆月球背面;上线不足一个月的故宫彩妆宣布全线停产;微信大数据刷屏,表情包暴露年龄;达沃斯热议“全球化4.0”;全球首富贝佐斯离婚;国务院办公厅印发《“无废城市”建设试点工作方案》;科创板实施意见发布;临近春节,红包大战开动,火车设“儿童车厢”、租对象过年业务等话题引发讨论。

网页版QQ WebQQ

Tencent QQ, one of China's most influential messaging and social networking softwares, waved goodbye to its byproduct WebQQ on January 1, 2019 due to internal business restructuring.

由于内部业务调整,腾讯QQ于2019年1月1日关闭其附属产品——网页版QQ。腾讯QQ是中国最有影响力的通信和社交软件之一。

网页版QQ在2009年9月上线,是腾讯推出的使用网页方式上QQ的服务(QQ login service in a browser window),特点是无需下载和安装QQ软件,只要能打开WebQQ的网站就可以登录QQ与好友保持联系。

之后,网页版QQ又升级为Smart QQ,电子宠物(digital pets)、游戏中心(game center)以及音乐在线播放(music streaming)等功能都从网页版中去除,只保留基本的即时信息服务(instant messaging)。

雄安新区总体规划 master plan for Xiongan New Area

中国政府网2日公布《国务院关于河北雄安新区总体规划(2018—2035年)的批复》。批复指出,经中共中央、国务院同意,原则同意《河北雄安新区总体规划(2018—2035年)》。

The 2018-2035 master plan for Xiongan New Area is significant to build Xiongan into the national model of high-quality development and a new engine for the modern economic system, said the approval released on Wednesday.

批复指出,总体规划对于将雄安新区打造成推动高质量发展的全国样板、建设现代化经济体系的新引擎具有重要意义。

The master plan is the fundamental guideline for the development, construction and management of the Xiongan New Area and should be strictly implemented, according to the approval.

总体规划是雄安新区发展、建设、管理的基本依据,必须严格执行。

批复对紧扣雄安新区战略定位(strategic position)、有序承接北京非首都功能疏解(undertake the noncapital functions of Beijing)、优化国土空间开发保护格局(optimize the framework of territorial space development and protection)、打造优美自然生态环境(create an inviting, ecologically healthy environment)、推进城乡融合发展(integrated urban and rural development)、塑造新区风貌特色(landscape with Chinese style)、打造宜居宜业环境(an ideal area for living and working)、构建现代综合交通体系(a modern and comprehensive public traffic system)、建设绿色低碳之城(a green and low-carbon city)、建设国际一流的创新型城市(a world-class innovative city)、创建数字智能之城(a digital and smart city)、确保城市安全运行等提出指导性意见。

月球背面 the far side of the moon

2019年1月3日10时26分,嫦娥四号探测器自主着陆在月球背面南极-艾特肯盆地内的冯·卡门撞击坑内,实现人类探测器首次在月球背面软着陆。

The Chang'e 4 lunar probe landed at 10:26 on the Von Karman crater in the South Pole-Aitken basin and then sent back a picture of the landing site shot by one of the monitor cameras on the probe's lander, marking the world's first image taken on the moon's far side.

10时26分,嫦娥四号探测器在在月球背面南极-艾特肯盆地着陆并传回一张由自带监视相机拍摄的着陆点照片,这是世界首张月球背面影像图。

至此,嫦娥四号任务实现了人类探测器首次月背软着陆(soft landing on the moon's far side)、首次月背与地球的中继通信(relay communication),开启了人类月球探测新篇章(new chapter in lunar exploration)。

月球背面(the far side of the moon)从来没有面对过地球,原因在于“潮汐锁定”(tidal locking)现象,就是潮汐力(tidal force)对月球自转的减速作用,使得月球总是以同一面朝向着地球。

月球背面电磁环境(electromagnetic environment)非常干净,是天文学家梦寐以求开展低频射电研究(low frequency radio study)的场所。在此开展低频射电天文观测可以填补射电天文领域在低频观测段的空白。

海南自由贸易账户 Hainan free trade account

海南自由贸易账户体系于2019年1月1日在海南省内部分金融机构正式上线运行。

The Hainan free trade account system dispenses with the earlier requirement of maintaining two accounts, one for domestic transactions and the other for international transactions, replacing them with a unified domestic and foreign currency account with the renminbi as the base currency.

海南自由贸易账户体系不再执行此前保留两个账户,即一个国内交易账户、一个国际交易账户的要求,用一套以人民币为本位币、本外币统一的账户取而代之。

海南自由贸易账户(Hainan free trade account)是指海南省金融机构根据客户需要在分账核算单元开立的规则统一的本外币账户,按照“一线便利,二线管理”的原则规范账户收支管理,是一套以人民币为本位币(renminbi as its base currency)、账户规则统一(using unified accounting rules)、兼顾本外币风险差别管理(taking into account types of different risk management between the renminbi and foreign currencies)的本外币可兑换账户体系(a convertible accounting system),是海南自由贸易试验区的重要金融基础设施。

The Hainan free trade account system allows market entities to conveniently carry out investment, financing, and cross-border transactions applicable to the Hainan free trade zone.

海南自由贸易账户为市场主体在海南自贸区开展投资、融资和跨境贸易提供了便利。

海南自由贸易账户体系建设,是海南确定的自贸区(港)建设十二个先导性项目之一(one of the 12 pilot programs)。账户正式上线运行对于促进市场主体贸易投融资汇兑便利化(facilitating trade investment and financing)、提升海南自由贸易试验区(港)营商环境(improve business environment in Hainan Pilot Free Trade Zone)具有重要意义。

出境税 sayonara tax

Starting next week, all travellers, regardless of nationality, leaving Japan will be required to pay a "sayonara tax" of 1,000 yen, Japanese media reported.

据日本媒体报道,下周起,无论国籍,所有从日本离境的游客都必须支付一笔1000日元的出境税。

据《日本经济新闻》报道,"出境税(departure tax, sayonara tax)"原则上由离开日本时乘坐的飞机或船舶的运营公司代收。航空和船舶公司将在票价上增加国际观光旅客税。除未满2岁的旅客(passengers below the age of two)以及在24小时内出境的过境旅客(transit passengers leaving Japan within 24 hours)外,每位离境旅客都须通过机票或船票(air or boat tickets)缴纳税金1000日元。

报道称,日本政府预计,新政将在2019年度带来500亿日元税收,这笔税金将用于进一步提振旅游业(bolster tourism),增加访日外国游客人数(accommodate more foreign visitors to the country)。具体来说,这笔钱将用于完善旅游环境,宣传日本魅力、提高出入境审查速度等方面。近年来访日外国游客人数屡创新高,其中中国游客是数量最多、消费最多的群体之一。

停产 suspend production

Palace Museum Taobao suspended production of cosmetics including lipsticks, eye shadow and rouge on Saturday, citing quality concerns following their release on the e-marketplace on Dec 11.

“故宫淘宝”5日宣布唇膏、眼影、腮红等彩妆系列产品因品质原因停产,该系列产品于2018年12月11日在淘宝上线。

这里的“停产”用的是suspend production,也有媒体用halt production,suspend和halt均表示“暂停、中止”,也就是说,这个停产并不是永久停产,而是暂时的。如果说someone is suspended from job/school就表示“某人被停职或停学”。

1月5日,“故宫淘宝”转发一条彩妆试色微博时配文称:

“感谢所有声音,每一条意见我们都有认真阅读记录。故宫淘宝原创系列彩妆,从外观到内质仍有很多进步空间(Palace Museum Taobao's original makeup line still has much room for improvement from inside out)。所以我们决定,全线停产(halt all production lines),不断完善,直至把最好的推送给大家(keep improving until we can present you with our best products)。已预售出的订单(presale orders)会在年后春季陆续发货(会略有富余数量上架),请勿担心。”

随后,“故宫淘宝”在评论中回复称:

彩妆产品“涉及到膏体配方改良”,口红外观反馈不够高级,膏体顺滑流畅度和颜色都有进步空间(the lipstick was not smooth enough, and the color could be improved)。眼影珠光颗粒不够精细(the eye shadow's particles were insufficiently fine),部分颜色有飞粉现象。腮红粉色挑人(the pinky blush color is not versatile on different skin undertones),橙色尚可,点翠蓝色实用度欠佳(the light blue rouge was impractical)。

国家科学技术奖 State Science and Technology Award

Radar expert Liu Yongtan and defense engineer Major General Qian Qihu were honored with the 2018 State Preeminent Science and Technology Award on Tuesday.

1月8日,雷达专家刘永坦和防护工程专家钱七虎少将获得2018年度国家最高科学技术奖。

国家科学技术奖(State Science and Technology Award)每年评审一次,根据最新发布的《关于深化科技奖励制度改革的方案》,规定“国家三大奖”每年授奖总数不超过300项。国家科学技术奖包括、国家自然科学奖(the State Natural Science Award)、国家技术发明奖(the State Technological Innovation Award)、国家科技进步奖(the State Science and Technology Advancement Award),即大家常说的“国家三大奖”。还包括授予外籍科学家或外国组织的中华人民共和国国际科学技术合作奖(the International Science and Technology Cooperation Award),和分量最重的国家最高科学技术奖(State Preeminent Science and Technology Award)。

国家最高科学技术奖是为表彰在基础科学研究领域取得重大突破(achieve important breakthroughs in basic scientific research),并带来深远影响(with far-reaching influence)的科学工作者,以及创造了巨大经济效益(generate enormous economic returns)、促进了社会进步(facilitate social progress)的杰出科学家而设立的。

百日行动 100-day campaign

国家市场监管总局、工信部、公安部、卫健委等13个部门召开电视电话会议,决定自2019年1月8日起,在全国范围内集中开展联合整治“保健”市场乱象百日行动(100-day campaign to crack down on illegal practices involving health products)。

Key targets are products and industries closely related to the everyday lives of people, as well as gadgets, clothing and household appliances that claim to have health benefits, a joint action plan said.

联合行动方案将整顿重点锁定为:与人民群众日常消费密切相关的产品和行业,以及宣称有保健功效的器材、衣物以及日用家电。

该行动将在全国范围内加大对“保健”市场重点行业、重点领域、重点行为的事中事后监管力度(supervision during and after production),依法严厉打击虚假宣传、虚假广告(false advertising)、制售假冒伪劣产品(producing and selling counterfeit products)等扰乱市场秩序(disrupting the market order)、侵害消费者合法权益(violating the rights and interests of consumers)等各类违法行为。

国家市场监管总局局长张茅强调,禁止各地市场监管部门对保健品进行评比、评优等活动(stop reviewing health products or providing seals that certify their quality),违者坚决依法追责。

各部门也在会上对“百日行动”作出部署。

工信部门表示,建立健全24小时机制,及时处置网络违法活动,严查利用骚扰电话进行保健品推销(establish a 24-hour surveillance system that can catch illegal activity online and curb spam phone calls promoting health products)。

民政部门将重点对养老服务场所和设施进行排查(investigate social service facilities for the elderly),严禁假借养老服务场所进行保健品推销。

商务部门将严格直销行业市场准入(strictly control market access of direct selling industry),整治直销市场秩序。

旅游部门将重点查处利用低价旅游推销保健品的行为(target health products promotion through low-cost tours)。

卫生部门将严厉查处各种假借健康讲座进行免费体检、以中医预防保健名义进行非法诊疗、无证行医等行为(illegal medical practices in the name of TCM healthcare)。

微信大数据 WeChat big data

2018微信数据报告显示:

WeChat's 1.08 billion monthly active users last year made 410 million daily video and audio calls.

2018年,微信月活用户10.8亿,4.1亿次音视频呼叫成功。

As of September 2018, over 63 million users were registered as 55 years old or above.

截止2018年9月,55岁以上的注册用户超过6300万。

各年龄段用户偏好

Users born in the 2000s like to stay up late at night and spend the most on cold drinks and sweet treats.00后用户都爱晚睡,在冷饮和甜品方面的花费最多。

Facepalm is the most popular emoji with this age group.

他们最爱用的表情包是捂脸。

Those born in the 1990s are late risers and the most frequent users of public transport.

90后起床最晚,公交出行最频繁。

Face with tears of joy is their favorite emoji.

他们最爱用的表情包是笑中带泪。

Those born in the 1980s are keen readers and followers of news related to State and public affairs.

80后最爱阅读,关注国家大事。

The most frequently used emoji in this age group is beaming face with smiling eyes.

他们最爱用的表情包是龇牙笑。

Users born in the 1970s are optimists and they use the emoji of smiling face with hand over mouth a lot.

70后是乐观主义者,最爱的表情符号是捂嘴笑。

The group aged 55 and above recorded an average length of 11 minute for video calls, topping all age groups.

55岁以上用户的平均视频通话时长为11分钟,在所有年龄段用户中居于首位。

Thumbs up is the most frequently used emoji among them.

他们最爱用的表情是点赞。

智慧生活

WeChat Wallet has also registered exponential growth, with payments in public transportation and high-speed traffic rising 4.7 times and 6.3 times, respectively.

微信钱包的使用剧增,使用微信搭公交和支付高速出行费用的用户分别比去年增加了4.7倍和6.3倍。

Spending in retail stores and dining via WeChat rose by 1.5 times and 1.7 times.

使用微信零售消费和吃饭买单的用户分别增加1.5倍和1.7倍。

The number of users who use the app for making medical appoints and paying bills almost tripled.

使用微信预约挂号和支付医疗费用的用户增加至将近3倍(2.9倍)。

5G临时牌照 temporary 5G licenses

The nation will grant temporary 5G licenses this year to promote the application and construction of fifth-generation mobile communication technology, Minister of Industry and Information Technology Miao Wei, said on Thursday.

工业和信息化部部长苗圩10日表示,今年,我国将发放5G临时牌照,推进第5代移动通信技术的应用和建设。

5G(5th generation mobile communication technology),即第五代移动通信技术,将提升移动网络的作用,不仅让人与人之间互联,更让机器、物体和终端之间互联互控。

5G是一个全新的通讯技术,具有高速率(high data rate)、大容量(high capacity)、低时延(short latency)的特性,这使得5G技术在物联网(Internet of Things)、智慧家居(smart home)、远程服务(remote service)、外场支援(field support)、虚拟现实(virtual reality)、增强现实(augmented reality)等领域有了新的应用。

苗圩表示,将来20%左右的5G设施,用于人和人之间的通讯问题(people-to-people communication),80%用于物和物、物和人,也就是物联网(Internet of Things),像未来的无人驾驶汽车。

苗圩表示,到今年下半年,真正能够商业使用的产品,像5G的手机、5G的iPad,都会陆续投放市场。

The ministry will also accelerate efforts to push forward the development of 5G hardware, including smartphones, Miao said.

工信部将加快推动智能手机等5G硬件产品的研发。

As part of its broader push to lead the global race toward commercializing 5G, China will also expedite the use of the superfast technology in education, medical care, elderly care and other sectors, Miao added.

除了在5G商用方面领先全球以外,今年,我国还将加快5G技术在教育、医疗、养老等各个领域的应用。

万亿俱乐部 1 trillion yuan club

17 Chinese cities are expected to join the "1 trillion yuan club" with each city's GDP surpassing 1 trillion yuan in 2018, chinanews.com reported on Thursday.

据中新网10日报道,去年国内17个城市的GDP超过1万亿元,"万亿俱乐部"有望扩至17城。

在17个进入"万亿俱乐部"的城市中,3个是新晋成员。2017年,宁波、佛山、郑州的GDP总量分别为9842.1亿元、9549.6亿元、9130.2亿元。三个城市距离"万亿俱乐部"仅一步之遥(knock on the doors of the 1 trillion yuan club)。佛山发布的2018年前三季度经济运行情况(developments in the operation of the economy)显示,GDP同比增长6.2%,按此推测,佛山2018年GDP总量有望超过1万亿元。公开信息显示,宁波和郑州两地2018年GDP也将突破1万亿元大关。

2017年已有14个城市进入GDP"万亿俱乐部"。其中,上海成为首个GDP超过3万亿元的城市,北京、深圳和广州的GDP均超过2万亿元。北京市发展和改革委员会相关负责人近日透露,2018年,北京市地区生产总值预计超过3万亿元,能够实现全年同比增长6.5%左右的预期目标(reach the annual expected growth target of 6.5%),人均地区生产总值将超过2万美元(the per capita GDP will surpass $20,000)。

从地域分布上看,"万亿俱乐部"17城中有12个位于东部地区(located in the eastern region),占比70.6%。3城位于中部地区(in the central region),2城位于西部地区。据报道,东莞、西安、南通、泉州、合肥和济南也有望在未来几年内加入"万亿俱乐部"(enter the club within the coming years)。

贝佐斯离婚 Jeff Bezos' divorce

Amazon CEO and founder Jeff Bezos, the world's richest man, has announced his divorce from MacKenzie, his wife of 25 years.

世界首富、亚马逊首席执行官兼创始人杰夫·贝佐斯宣布与妻子麦肯齐离婚,两人已结婚25年。

贝佐斯和麦肯齐在1993年结婚,婚后一年在西雅图的车库里创建了亚马逊。9日,贝佐斯在推特中宣布了离婚的消息(break the news of the split in a tweet),并附有两人的签名。现年55岁的贝佐斯的个人财富已达1370亿美元。就在离婚消息宣布的前两日,亚马逊成为全球市值最高的公司,股票市值高达7970亿美元(Amazon rose to become the world's most valuable company with a stock market value of $797 billion)。

贝佐斯在推文中说,在经历了长时间的爱情旅程和临时分居之后,两人决定离婚(they had decided to split up after a long period of loving exploration and trial separation)。两人育有三子一女。贝索斯称,他们还是"一个家庭,一对好友"(remain a family and cherished friends)。

如果两人平分财产(split their assets equally),麦肯齐将分得共同财富(combined fortune)的一半,即685亿美元。贝佐斯将不再享有世界首富的头衔,而麦肯齐将在一夜之间成为全球最富有的女性(become the richest woman in the world overnight)。目前,全球最富有的女性是欧莱雅集团的继承人(heiress of the L’Oréal empire)弗朗索瓦丝·贝当古·梅耶。

有着25年婚姻的两人为何突然宣布离婚?外媒爆料称,贝佐斯或婚内出轨,恋上已婚女主播(be having an affair with a married TV anchor)。据福克斯新闻报道,贝佐斯与好莱坞人才大亨(Hollywood talent mogul)帕特里克·怀特塞尔的妻子、电视主持人劳伦·桑切斯有着"秘密"关系("secret" relationship)。外界认为,贝佐斯本周突然发布离婚声明是因为他知道自己和桑切斯的情事将很快曝光(become public)。

危害公共安全 endangering public security

近日,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院和公安部联合印发了《关于依法惩治妨害公共交通工具安全驾驶违法犯罪行为的指导意见》,进一步提升对公共交通安全秩序的法律保障力度。

According to the guide, passengers who grab devices such as steering wheel or gear shift lever, and conduct actions that hamper safe driving such as beating or dragging drivers should be punished for crime of endangering public security with dangerous method. The passengers should not be granted probation even if the actions did not result in grave consequences. If passengers attack drivers with instruments, they should be given severe punishment.

意见明确,对于乘客实施“抢夺方向盘、变速杆等操纵装置,殴打、拉拽驾驶人员”等具有高度危险性的妨害安全驾驶行为的,按以危险方法危害公共安全罪定罪处罚,并强调即使尚未造成严重后果,一般也不得适用缓刑;具有“持械袭击驾驶人员”等几类特定情形的,予以从重处罚。

乘客针对其他人员实施寻衅滋事行为(causing disturbances),妨害交通运营秩序、影响行车安全的,根据具体情况分别适用寻衅滋事罪或者以危险方法危害公共安全罪定罪处罚(crime of endangering public security with dangerous method)。

《意见》强调,以暴力、威胁方法阻碍国家机关工作人员依法处置妨害安全驾驶违法犯罪行为、维护公共交通秩序的,以妨害公务罪定罪处罚(crime of endangering public affairs);暴力袭击正在依法执行职务的人民警察的,从重处罚。

For drivers who are unable to resolve disputes with passengers in a sensible way and leave their post to clash with passengers, they should be punished for crime of endangering public security with dangerous method.

鉴于实践中少数驾驶人员与乘客发生纷争后不能理性应对,而是违规操作或者擅离职守与乘客发生冲突,《意见》规定对实施此类行为的驾驶人员按以危险方法危害公共安全罪定罪处罚。

此外,为鼓励公共交通工具的乘务人员和乘客与妨害安全驾驶违法犯罪行为作斗争(stand up against criminal offenses),及时制止侵害驾驶人和乘客的行为,采取紧急措施避免严重危害后果发生(stop actions that could cause serious consequences),《意见》还就正当防卫(justifiable defense)、紧急避险(emergency measures)作出了原则规定。

嫦娥五号 Chang'e 5 probe

1月14日,国家航天局副局长、探月工程副总指挥吴艳华在国务院新闻办新闻发布会上表示,以嫦娥四号任务圆满成功为标志,我国探月工程四期和深空探测工程全面拉开序幕。

嫦娥四号任务实现多个创新:

首次实现月球背面着陆与巡视勘察(landing and detection on the far side of the Moon);

首次实现月球背面与地球的中继测控通信(relay and telemetry, track and command between the far side of the Moon and the Earth);

首次实现在月球背面着陆器和月球轨道微卫星的甚低频科学探测(ultra-low frequency scientific exploration by the lander on the far side of the Moon and the lunar-orbiting micro-satellite),运载火箭多窗口、窄宽度发射和入轨精度达到国际先进水平;

首次进行了超地月距离的激光测距技术试验(laser-ranging technology experiment beyond the Earth-Moon distance);

首次在月面开展生物科普展示(biological science demonstration on the lunar surface);

首次开展国际合作载荷搭载和联合探测(international payloads cooperation and joint exploration)。

嫦娥五号将于今年年底前后发射

China plans to send its Chang'e 5 probe to the moon around the end of the year and bring lunar samples back to Earth, Wu said.

吴艳华表示,2019年年底前后将发射嫦娥五号,并实现月面采样返回。

China follows its three-step objectives for lunar exploration, namely "orbiting, landing and sample returning", and the last objective will be realized by Chang'e-5 bringing back samples.

嫦娥五号采样返回后,中国探月工程将实现“绕、落、回”三步走目标。

随着今年年底嫦娥五号到月球正面取样回来,后续探月工程(lunar exploration program)还将完成三项任务包括:嫦娥六号、嫦娥七号和嫦娥八号。

嫦娥六号计划在月球南极进行采样返回(sample on the south pole of the Moon);

嫦娥七号计划在月球南极综合探测(conduct a comprehensive exploration on the south pole of the Moon),包括对月球的地形地貌(topography)、物质成分(material composition)、空间(spatial environment)进行一次综合探测;

嫦娥八号计划进行更多关键技术的月面试验(carry out further scientific exploration experiments and test some key technologies on the Moon),包括要不要在月球建立科研基地或科研站、月面如何进行3D打印、能否利用月壤建造房屋等,为共同构建月球科研基地进行探索。

2020年,我国将首次发射火星探测器(first Mars exploration mission)。

中国英语能力等级 China's Standards of English Language Ability

中国教育部考试中心与英国文化教育协会15日在京联合发布雅思、普思考试与中国英语能力等级量表对接研究结果(the results of their collaborative research on linking IELTS and Aptis to China's Standards of English Language Ability),标志着中国英语语言能力标准与国际考试接轨,中英在教育领域的合作进入新阶段。

The results display the cut scores of IELTS and Aptis tests mapped to CSE levels, according to a statement issued by the MOE National Education Examinations Authority (NEEA) and the British Council.

教育部考试中心与英国文化教育协会的声明指出,对接结果呈现了雅思、普思考试各技能和总成绩对应中国英语能力等级量表相关等级的临界分数。

According to the results, a score of 5 in IELTS listening is equivalent to CSE level 4, a score of 5.5 in IELTS reading is equivalent to CSE level 5, while a score of 45 in Aptis writing is equivalent to CSE level 6.

雅思听力得5分,即达到中国英语能力等级量表四级水平;阅读得5.5分,达到五级水平;普思写作得45分,相当于中国英语能力等级量表六级水平。

Yu Han, vice president of NEEA, said the research displayed the CSE's value in practice and would shed light on language learning patterns of English learners in different areas, adding that it also contributed to the "opening up" of China's education.

中国教育部考试中心副主任于涵表示,此次对接工作,体现了量表的应用价值,有助于探讨不同地区英语学习者语言学习规律与学习模式,助力“中国标准”走出去。

Barry O'Sullivan, the research's academic team leader from the British side and head of Assessment Research and Development at the British Council, noted that both IELTS and Aptis were communication-based tests, making it possible to link the two tests to the use-oriented CSE scale.

此次对接研究的英方学术负责人、英国文化教育协会测评研发中心主任巴里·奥沙利文(Barry O’Sullivan)表示,雅思及普思考试都是强调沟通为本的英语考试,而中国英语能力等级量表同样也以语言运用为导向,使得此次对接得以实现。

He said the linking results would be of value to policy makers at educational institutions, test-takers as well as test users such as schools and employers.

对接结果为中国各类教育机构政策制定者、英语学习者及成绩使用者(学校、雇主等)提供了重要参考。

2.5天周末 2.5-day weekend

A proposed 2.5-day weekend has been highlighted in an action plan for Hebei province as the potential key to boosting consumption, with plans also in place to promote more paid-leave and off-peak vacations.

河北省发布的促进消费实施方案中提出2.5天周末政策以及推动带薪休假和错峰休假等措施。

The document, which was aimed at increasing consumption during 2019 and 2020, said employers should adopt more flexible working hours and encourage leave on non-public holidays.

促进消费实施方案(2019-2020年)指出,用人单位应该实施更加灵活的工作时间,同时鼓励在非公共假期休假。

这里所谓的“2.5天周末/2.5天小长假(2.5-day weekend)”指的是“周五下午+周末两天”的周末延长模式(extended weekend)。2015年国务院办公厅下发的《关于进一步促进旅游投资和消费的若干意见(Several Decisions on Further Promoting Tourism-related Investment and Consumption)》,便提出了带薪休假(paid leave)、错峰休假(leave on non-public holidays/off-peak vacations)、为职工周五下午与周末结合外出休闲度假创造有利条件等举措。

此次河北省率先提出这一举措,立即引发热议。

不少网友表示,目前连双休日都难保证,2.5天就更不敢想了。

一位专家称,休假时间应该由公司和员工来决定,灵活的工作时间应该通过协商来达成,而不是由政府强制要求。

“As new technologies emerge to improve work efficiency, it’s possible to shorten people’s working hours, but a flexible scheme should be more based on the negotiation between the employer and employee,” Yao Xianguo, head of the Public Policy Research Institute of Zhejiang University, said.

浙江大学公共政策研究院院长姚先国说:“新技术的出现提高了工作效率,也会缩短人们的工作时间,但灵活的工作时间应该更多地基于雇主和雇员之间的协商。”

集中采购 centralized procurement

国务院办公厅印发《国家组织药品集中采购和使用试点方案》,对国家组织药品集中采购和使用试点工作作出部署,选择北京、天津、上海、重庆和沈阳、大连、厦门、广州、深圳、成都、西安11个城市开展试点工作。

The program asks public medical institutions in the pilot cities to purchase 60 to 70 percent of their total annual demand for certain medicines through a pooled procurement mechanism in order to get a lower price.

方案要求试点城市的公立医疗机构年度药品总用量的60%-70%要通过集中采购模式购买,以降低采购价格。

集中采购(centralized procurement/pooled procurement)指对相同或功能相近的采购项目,尽量集中在一次进行采购,以减少采购次数,提高工作效率,降低采购成本。

方案提出,要按照国家组织、联盟采购、平台操作的总体思路,即国家拟定基本政策、范围和要求,组织试点地区形成联盟,以联盟地区公立医疗机构为集中采购主体,探索跨区域联盟集中带量采购。

经国家药品监督管理部门批准、在中国大陆地区上市的集中采购范围内药品的生产企业(all approved enterprises that can produce drugs on the procurement list in the Chinese mainland),均可参加集中采购。

集中采购入围标准包括质量入围标准和供应入围标准。质量入围标准主要考虑药品临床疗效(clinical effects)、不良反应(adverse reactions)、批次稳定性(batch stability)等。供应入围标准主要考虑企业的生产能力(production capacity)、供应稳定性(consistency of supply)等。

试点有四项目标任务:

一是实现药价明显降低,减轻患者药费负担(lowering drug costs for patients);

二是降低企业交易成本(reducing transaction costs for enterprises),净化流通环境,改善行业生态;

三是引导医疗机构规范用药(regulating drug use of institutions),支持公立医院改革;

四是探索完善药品集中采购机制和以市场为主导的药品价格形成机制(improving the centralized medicine procurement and pricing system)。

全球化4.0 globalization 4.0

世界经济论坛2019年年会将于1月22日至25日在瑞士达沃斯举行,预计将有来自全球110多个国家超过三千名政、商、学界及公民社会、文化艺术和媒体界的代表及专家和青年领袖出席。

本届年会主题为“全球化4.0:打造第四次工业革命时代的全球架构(Globalization 4.0: Shaping a Global Architecture in the Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution)”。

什么是“全球化4.0”?

世界经济论坛创始人兼执行主席施瓦布1月16日发表在美国《外交》杂志的一篇文章给出了详细的解释:

The Fourth Industrial Revolution is best described by its leading technologies: artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles, and the Internet of Things. These are technologies that will affect many industries in the decades to come and accord unprecedented importance to the digital world.

第四次工业革命的最佳表述就是这些领先技术:人工智能、无人驾驶汽车,以及物联网。这些技术将在未来几十年影响多个行业,对数字世界有至关重要的影响。

In this world, globalization won’t disappear; it will deepen. If in the past global integration grew as trade barriers came down, it will now rely on the connectivity of national digital and virtual systems and the related flow of ideas and services. This is the core of Globalization 4.0.

当今世界,全球化不会消失,而是不断深入。如果说以往的全球融合是因为贸易壁垒的消失而发展,那么如今的全球化发展则有赖于国家间数字和虚拟系统的互联互通以及相关理念和服务的流通。这是全球化4.0的核心。

施瓦布指出,

This fourth wave of globalization needs to be human-centered, inclusive and sustainable.

全球化4.0必须是以人为本、包容和可持续的。

他还表示,在应对全球化4.0的挑战时,我们要遵循三个重要原则:

First, the dialogues that take place to shape Globalization 4.0 must involve all the relevant global players.

第一,构建全球化4.0的对话必须让全球有关各方参与。

Second, the preservation of social and national cohesion should be placed front and center.

第二,维护社会及民族凝聚力应该放在首要地位。

Third, coordination—achieving shared objectives—will yield more successes than cooperation—acting out a common strategy.

第三,协同(达成共同目标)会比合作(执行同一战略)取得更多成果。

本届达沃斯年会将以“全球化4.0”为主题举行一系列“全球对话”,重点关注以下相互关联的领域:

“地缘政治和观念多元化的世界”全球对话(a global dialogue on the geopolitics and a “multiconceptual” world):了解国际关系中正在发生的重大变化,并就如何推动未来合作进行坦诚和建设性的讨论;同时举行“和平与和解”全球对话(a global dialogue on peace and reconciliation):推动多方利益相关者为解决世界主要薄弱环节的外交努力提供大规模支持,特别是正值战略地缘政治转变有可能导致权力真空和/或单边主义不断抬头之际。

“经济的未来”全球对话(a global dialogue on the future of the economy):回顾经济和社会决策原则(review principles for economic and social decision-making),这些原则需要重新制定,以更好地反映第四次工业革命中固有的结构性变化;同时举行“金融和货币体系”全球对话(a global dialogue on financial and monetary systems):利用加密货币和区块链等新技术共同塑造货币和金融体系(jointly shape our monetary and financial systems by leveraging new technologies, such as cryptocurrencies and blockchain),并且使这些体系更具弹性,从而实现可持续增长和长期社会福祉。

“工业系统”全球对话(a global dialogue on industry systems):预测第四次工业革命如何提供机会,大幅改善卫生、能源、通信、交通等领域的服务;同时举行“技术政策”全球对话(a global dialogue on technology policy):就人工智能和基因编辑等创新和新兴技术确定原则,并确保这些技术以必要的道德原则和基于价值观的框架为依托。

“网络安全”全球对话(a global dialogue on cybersecurity):确保第四次工业革命的数字创新和技术支柱安全可靠;同时举行“风险复原力”全球对话(a global dialogue on risk resilience):促进系统性思考,从根本上改善我们对关键环境系统(气候、海洋和生物圈)的综合管理,这些系统是我们的社会和经济赖以生存的基础。

“人力资本”全球对话(a global dialogue on human capital):工作的概念正在发生巨变,需要对其进行重新审视,还要反思工作的未来和人力资本的相关性;同时举行“新社会愿景”全球对话(a global dialogue on a new societal narrative):塑造新的社会愿景,从迷恋消费和物质主义转变为关注理想和人文主义。

“制度改革”全球对话(a global dialogue on institutional reform):反思上世纪出现的全球制度框架,并对其进行调整,确保适应21世纪今后几十年的新政治、经济和社会环境;同时举行“经济合作”全球对话(a global dialogue on economic cooperation):建立一个新的规则和制度框架,整合全球经济合作的方方面面,包括知识产权、人员流动、竞争政策、数据保护、汇率、财政政策、国有企业和国家安全。

在本届年会350多场论坛对话环节中,“中国主题”颇为显眼。其中包括:

22日举行的“推进‘一带一路’倡议:展望中国的万亿美元愿景(Advancing the Belt and Road Initiative: China’s Trillion-Dollar Vision)”;

24日的“中国经济展望(China Economic Outlook)”和“全球化4.0:中国如何塑造全球商业的未来(Globalization 4.0: China's Role in the Future of Global Commerce)”等。

电子票 electronic tickets

北京轨道交通1月20日起试行推出电子定期票,为乘客地铁出行增添新选择。

The electronic tickets, which can be used on Beijing’s metro network apart from airport lines, will be available on the app Yitongxing, the official online Beijing Subway payment platform.

电子票可通过北京地铁官方在线支付平台“易通行App”购买,适用于除机场线外北京轨道交通全路网所有线路。

此次推出的电子定期票票价分别为:一日票(one-day pass)20元/张、二日票(two-day pass)30元/张、三日票(three-day pass)40元/张、五日票(five-day pass)70元/张、七日票(seven-day pass)90元/张。乘客在“易通行App”上激活电子定期票后,可分别在24小时、48小时、72小时、120小时及168小时内一人一码不限次数乘坐北京轨道交通全路网(不含机场线)所有线路(unlimited travel in Beijing's subway network within designated time period)。

值得注意的是,电子定期票不再享受北京轨道交通其他优惠政策(not eligible to other favorable subway fare policies),一经激活不予退票(no refunds can be issued once the tickets are activated online),仅限单人使用。

目前,北京地铁使用的是按里程计价制度(a metered fare system),乘客可以在车站购买单程票或者办理交通一卡通充值使用。学生、老人、军人,以及每月频繁乘坐地铁出行的通勤族可享受一定优惠。

2017年8月,北京地铁开通手机一卡通服务,乘客只需要用手机下载北京一卡通应用,并完成在线开卡(creating account)及充值(topping up)就可使用手机一卡通。

据悉,北京市交通部门在试行轨道交通电子定期票的基础上,后续还将推出公交、地铁联乘的日票(day-calculated tickets for joint bus and subway rides)。

儿童车厢 children's carriages

2019年春运的大幕已经开启,不少人开始踏上回家的旅途。所以,最近有关火车、飞机等交通工具的话题很容易登上热搜。

这两天网友们讨论的一个话题是:

Should trains have children's carriages?

火车上该不该设“儿童车厢”?

针对这个提议,中国铁路总公司客运部主任黄欣在中国之声《温暖回家路》特别节目中回应说,

The idea is very creative, and they always welcome new ideas and suggestions being put forward to the rail services.

网友想法很有创意,欢迎广大网友、广大旅客多给铁路提出更多更好改进工作的意见和建议。

Whether or not it's necessary to concentrate noisy children in one compartment, all public transport faces a similar situation.

是不是需要把吵闹的孩子集中在一个车厢,所有的公共交通工具都会面临类似的情况。

There are people suggesting that those who like to watch films or listen to music should be concentrated in one carriage. These suggestions provide inspiration for the improvement of the public transport sector, but also bring new challenges about how we can further improve and refine the services of public transportation.

也许还会有人建议,把喜欢看电影、喜欢听音乐的各集中在一个车厢,这些建议对公共交通部门完善工作有很多启发,也对进一步提高公共交通运输人性化、精细化服务带来新的挑战。

【知识点:compartment和carriage有什么区别】

铁路客车上一节一节的车厢在英式英语中一般用coach或carriage表示,美式英语中常用car表示,乘客车厢就是passenger coach或passenger car,卧铺车厢中独立的隔间叫compartment。火车上其他功能的车厢还有:行李车厢(baggage car)、餐车(dinning car)、卧铺车厢(sleeping car)、硬座车厢(chair car)等。

红包大战 red envelopes battle

During Chinese New Year, money is put inside red envelopes which are then handed out to younger generations by their parents, grandparents, relatives, and even close neighbors and friends.

春节期间,父母、祖父母,以及亲朋好友会把钱装在红色的信封里分发给下一代。

At some companies, workers may also receive a year-end cash bonus tucked inside a red envelope. Red envelopes are also popular gifts for birthdays and weddings.

有些企业也会把年终奖放在红包里发给员工。另外,生日和婚礼也是红包经常出现的场合。

For technology companies, this has been an annual battlefield to entice users to stay glued to their respective services through financial incentives and promotional offers enclosed in virtual red envelopes.

对科技企业来说,通过虚拟红包中的资金激励和优惠政策吸引并留住用户,是一场年度大战。

支付宝集五福瓜分5亿

1月25日,支付宝集五福活动又开始了,据说今年的红包总额是5亿。

From Jan 25 to Feb 4, an augmented reality-powered game allows people to collect virtual red envelopes by scanning the Chinese character fu, which symbolizes fortune and luck in Chinese and is commonplace ahead of the Chinese New Year.

1月25日至2月4日,用户可以通过扫“福”字在支付宝增强现实游戏中集福。“福”在汉语中代表财富和好运,春节前随处可见。

It also ties into a series of events that promotes Alipay's array of services, from ecological protection scheme Ant Forest to Huabei, a consumer credit service.

集福活动还嵌入了支付宝旗下的其他服务,包括环保类的蚂蚁森林,以及消费信用类服务花呗。

Those who have gathered five fu representing different blessings stand to equally split the cash prize, plus extra offerings including paid trips to Europe for football matches and a full-year reimbursement of all loans incurred on Huabei.

集齐五福的用户将平分现金红包,另外还有欧洲足球观赛之旅、全年帮还花呗等额外奖励。

百度狂撒10亿

成为央视春晚独家互动合作伙伴的百度,春节前要发10亿红包,除夕当天还要发9亿红包。

Search engine Baidu Inc entered the fray this year by allocating up to 1 billion yuan of digital cash to be disbursed in the lead-up to the Year of the Pig.

搜索引擎公司百度在猪年春节到来之前,拿出10亿电子红包,加入今年的大战。

The free money is deposited directly in the recipients' accounts with the app operator. The recipient can use the digital cash for future purchases via the app or resend it as a gift to friends and relatives who are using the same app, thus maximizing the level of participation for existing users and drawing in new customers.

红包会直接存入用户的百度app账户,可用于该账户内的消费,也可当做红包发给其他使用百度app的亲朋好友。这样一来,既能将当前用户的参与度最大化,还能吸引新用户加入。

银联云闪付:签到、转账都有红包

今年,云闪付率先开启了“扫标识领最高2019元红包”活动。

Under a promotional campaign that ends on Feb 4, participants who download and use China UnionPay's QuickPass app to scan objects bearing the company logo are eligible for cash prizes of up to 2,019 yuan.

2019年2月4日前,用户使用云闪付APP扫描身边的“银联”或“云闪付”标识,即可获得最高2019元的现金红包。

The promotion will also include other cash gifts if people sign onto the app on a daily basis, recommend new users and transfer funds via the tool.

此外,云闪付还对每日签到、推荐新用户以及使用云闪付app转账的用户分发现金奖励。

无废城市 zero-waste city

国务院办公厅近日印发的《“无废城市”建设试点工作方案》提出,在全国范围内选择10个左右有条件、有基础、规模适当的城市,在全市域范围内开展“无废城市”建设试点。

According to the document, a zero-waste city refers to an advanced urban development and management model that aims to promote green lifestyles, minimize the amount of waste produced, strengthen recycling programs and ensure that waste released into the environment is harmless.

方案指出,无废城市是一种先进的城市发展和管理模式,旨在推动绿色生活方式,推进固体废物源头减量和资源化利用,确保排放废物对环境无害。

试点城市怎么选?

在全国范围内选择10个左右有条件、有基础、规模适当的城市,在全市域范围内开展“无废城市”建设试点。综合考虑不同地域、不同发展水平及产业特点、地方政府积极性等因素,优先选取国家生态文明试验区(national ecological civilization pilot zone)省份具备条件的城市、循环经济示范城市(national demonstration city for the circular economy)、工业资源综合利用示范基地(demonstration base for comprehensive utilization of industrial resources)、已开展或正在开展各类固体废物回收利用无害化处置试点并取得积极成效的城市。

试点目标是啥?

到2020年,系统构建“无废城市”建设指标体系(an index system for zero-waste cities),探索建立“无废城市”建设综合管理制度和技术体系(an institutional and technical system for the management of no-waste cities),试点城市在固体废物重点领域和关键环节取得明显进展,大宗工业固体废物贮存处置总量趋零增长(with almost zero growth of industrial waste storage)、主要农业废弃物全量利用(full use of agricultural waste)、生活垃圾减量化资源化水平全面提升(a decrease in waste generation and an increase in its utilization)、危险废物全面安全管控(hazardous waste will be well-controlled),非法转移倾倒固体废物事件零发生(no more waste will be dumped illegally),培育一批固体废物资源化利用骨干企业(a group of backbone waste recycling enterprises will be established)。

通过在试点城市深化固体废物综合管理改革,总结试点经验做法,形成一批可复制、可推广的“无废城市”建设示范模式(a model of no-waste cities that is replicable and applicable),为推动建设“无废社会”奠定良好基础。

英国电信 British Telecom

1月25日,英国电信宣布已获得中国工业和信息化部颁发的增值业务全国牌照,成为第一家进入中国市场的国际电信公司。

BT Group has secured nationwide licences in China, becoming the first foreign telecommunication company to do so in the Asian economy. The two "value added licenses" will allow the UK telco to directly contract and bill customers in the Chinese market.

英国电信集团已经获得中国的全国牌照,成为首个获得中国牌照的外国电信公司。获得的两个增值业务牌照允许该公司在中国市场直接与客户签约并收费。

英国电信获得的两个“增值业务牌照(value added licenses)”分别为全国性国内IP-VPN牌照(nationwide Domestic IP-VPN license,虚拟专用网)、全国性互联网服务提供商牌照(Internet Service Provider license)。

这两个“牌照”将允许英电通讯信息咨询(上海)有限责任公司直接与其在中国国内的全球客户签订合约,并以人民币收费(enable BT customers in China to be billed in local currency)。

英国电信全球服务部首席执行官巴斯·伯格(Bas Burger)表示:

Being able to service and bill locally significantly simplifies the process of delivering connectivity and other communication services. It is what our customers expect from us and we are very grateful for the opportunity to do this as of today.

能够在当地提供服务并收费极大地简化了提供连接和其他通讯服务的流程。这正是我们的用户所期望的,有机会做到这一步,我们非常感谢。

英国国际贸易大臣利亚姆·福克斯(UK's International Trade Secretary Liam Fox)也指出,此次英国电信获得牌照得益于中国政府与英国政府的紧密合作(the close cooperation between the UK and Chinese governments helped secure the licences for BT),使得该公司能够在中国全国范围开展业务。

中国信息通信研究院发布的《外商投资电信企业发展态势(2018年度)》报告显示,目前,我国外商投资经营电信业务主要集中在增值电信业务(value added telecom services)领域。截至2018年底,获得批准的外商投资电信企业共121家,同比增长39%。其中工业和信息化部颁发许可证的86家。

上述报告同时指出,从许可数量上看,在线数据处理与交易处理业务(data online trading and processing business)位居首位,信息服务业务(information services)居第二位,国内呼叫中心业务(domestic call center)仍居第三位,该三项业务许可数量占全部业务许可颁发数量的81%。

租对象服务 partner-renting services

In recent years, renting fake girlfriends or boyfriends to travel home with during the Spring Festival holiday — the Chinese celebration of the Lunar New Year — has grown in popularity. Businesses may charge meager fees or princely sums in exchange for temporary partners intended to appease parents impatiently waiting for their unwed children to settle down.

近几年,租对象回家过年越来越火。想带个临时对象回家安慰催婚的父母需要给提供此业务的商家支付少量或高额的费用。

据《新京报》报道,网络租友(online partner-renting)的起源,最早能查到的是2008年,一名叫“陈潇”的女孩出租自己的闲暇时间(rent out her spare time),此后,越来越多的人有了租友的需求。2011年有一些商家通过电商平台提供租友服务(partner-renting services),以便“在过年时期应付家庭长辈的检查”。此后,一些租友网站和App租友平台也随之诞生。

不过,这种新兴业务也引发了不少人对相应平台管理方面的担忧。比如,平台管理混乱,有些平台根本不提供相应的中介服务,纯粹是打着租友的招牌骗会员费(swindle membership fees out of users);又比如,用户的注册信息也存在极高的泄露风险(highly susceptible to information breach)。

此外,围绕租友的一些诈骗行为(fraud)和非法色情交易(sexual services),几乎都是在钻管理上的漏洞。有用户为租来的对象购买了机票并支付定金(advance payment)以后,对方失联。还有色情犯罪团伙直接利用租友平台招嫖(solicit prostitution)。

从法律上讲,租友实质上是一种劳务雇佣关系(employment relationship),而不是租赁关系。但是因租男女朋友这种人身属性比较特殊,容易违反公序良俗。

Han Xiao, a lawyer at Beijing Kangda Law Firm, said that despite their inherent pitfalls, partner-renting services don’t necessarily violate the law. However, he said people should be aware of the gray areas involved in such contracts. “For example, if two people have agreed to have sex in exchange for money during a designated period, then that constitutes prostitution, and is illegal.”

北京市康达律师事务所律师韩骁表示,虽然租友业务有一些固有的隐患,但并不违法,不过,人们要当心此类合同中的灰色地带。“比如,租友协议或两人口头就以金钱、财务为媒介提供陪睡服务达成一致,在租友期间同房发生关系,就涉及卖淫嫖娼的违法行为了。”

科创板 science and technology innovation board

1月30日,中国证监会发布《关于在上海证券交易所设立科创板并试点注册制的实施意见》。

The science and technology innovation board will focus on companies in high-tech and strategically emerging sectors such as new generation information technology, advanced equipment, new materials, new energy, energy conservation and environmental protection and biomedicine, the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) said in a statement.

证监会表示,科创板将重点支持新一代信息技术、高端装备、新材料、新能源、节能环保以及生物医药等高新技术产业和战略性新兴产业。

《实施意见》明确,在科创板试点注册制(registration-based IPO mechanism),合理制定科创板股票发行条件(IPO qualifications)和更加全面深入精准的信息披露规则体系(comprehensive and explicit framework of rules for information disclosure)。上交所负责科创板发行上市审核(IPO screening),证监会负责科创板股票发行注册(IPO registration)。证监会将加强对上交所审核工作的监督,并强化新股发行上市事前事中事后全过程监管(end-to-end supervision)。

多元包容的上市条件

《实施意见》指出,科创板根据板块定位和科创企业特点,设置多元包容的上市条件,允许符合科创板定位、尚未盈利(pre-revenue companies)或存在累计未弥补亏损的企业(companies with uncovered deficit)在科创板上市,允许符合相关要求的特殊股权结构企业(companies of special shareholding structure)和红筹企业(red chip enterprises)在科创板上市。

涨跌幅限制

适当放宽涨跌幅限制。将科创板股票的涨跌幅限制放宽至20%(allow shares to rise or fall by a maximum of 20% on any single trading day),新股上市后的前5个交易日不设涨跌幅限制(no cap for rising and falling in the first 5 trading days after IPO)。

个人投资者参与门槛

申请权限开通前20个交易日证券账户及资金账户内的资产日均不低于人民币50万元(at least 500,000 yuan in investment capital for 20 trading days before the investment)(不包括该投资者通过融资融券融入的资金和证券);

参与证券交易24个月以上(24 months of equity trading experience)。

终止上市规定

科创公司触及终止上市(termination of listing)标准的,股票直接终止上市,不再适用暂停上市(suspend listing)、恢复上市(resume listing)、重新上市(relisting)程序,上市公司股票被终止上市的,不得申请重新上市。

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